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Full text of "Idaho white pine ideal for wood patterns."

JO^S-JO 



AHO WHITE PINE 

IDEAL FbR WOOD PATTERNS 




WESTE' 



E ASSOCIATK 




Idaho Wliite Pine was used for this mammoth pattern for the stern frame of U.S.S. Constitution and U.S. 8. United States at Philadelphia Navy Yard. 



© 1938 W. P. A. 
Printed in U. S. A. 




i 

5 



(Left) Idaho White Pine pattern for a stifT leg iron for a crane or derrick and iRtght) skilled craftsmen using this ideal wood for other pattern.^. 

IDAHO WHITE PINE IDEAL FOR WOOD PATTERNS 



The Genuine White Pines 

If it were possible to hold a plebiscite of the com- 
mercially important softwoods grown in the United 
States, there is little doubt about the outcome of the 
election. Genuine White Pine is the leader and has 
been for a long time. True, some of the places where 
genuine White Pine has been used for scores of years 
have been taken by other species less costly and of 
lower intrinsic value, but in places like pattern making 
where the purchase price of the material is relatively 
unimportant, due to the vastly higher labor expense of 
making patterns, genuine White Pine still stands 
supreme. 

There are, of course, three genuine White Pines- 
Northern White Pine (Pinm strobus), Sugar Pine 
{Pinus lambertiana) and Idaho White Pine (Pin us 
moniicola). Northern White Pine is not as plentiful as 
it once was. There is still considerable cutting in the 
northern wood, but the stock usually finds its way into 
construction and specialty uses. Also, the wide, thick 
pieces needed by a pattern maker are not as common 
now in Northern Pine because of the smaller size of logs. 

Idaho (genuine) White Pine 

In the Inland Empire of the Pacific Northwest, 
where Idaho White Pine grows, the situation is differ- 
ent. Production of high quality pieces, suitable for 
pattern and factory purposes, is an important part of 
the work of the Idaho mills in harvesting the crop of 
old-growth pine trees into a product used by the in- 
dustry in large quantities. The problem of logging, 
cutting, drying and shipping Idaho White Pine for pat- 
tern uses has been mastered by the operators in this 
section and the result of the effort is felt in pattern 
shops throughout the country. 



Why Pattern Makers Like This Wood 

It is for a very definite reason that the pattern 
maker chooses Idaho Whitc^ Pine for his work. Patt(^rn 
making is an art, and when a pattcM'ii makcT choosers 
Idaho White Pine for his work, it is for the same reason 
that any other artist feels that results are more satis- 
factory when he is working with his chosen medium. 
Perhaps the pattern maker would not state it this way 
but would rather tell you the reason he likes to work 
with Idaho White Pine is because of its easy cutting 
in any direction. This is absolutely necessary. He 
might tell you it is soft and frec^ from pitchy sub- 
stances, and his tools stay sharp longer. If you say it 
is so soft it requires extremely sliarp tools, he no doubt 
will assume a hurt expression and tell you that a real 
mechanical artist does not have any use for other than 
sharp tools. He will tell you it is light in weight but 
not too light. It is heavy enough to give the necessary 
strength to large, difficult-to-handh^ patterns. The 
pattern maker knows the importance of a lack of ex- 
cessive swelling and shrinking in a pattern wood. A 
pattern's usefulness depends on its ability to stay in 
shape, and Idaho White Pine, properly seasoned, will 
do just that. A pattern maker will tell you there is a 
certain amount of wear in a pattern that is used often, 
and the ideal pattern wood must hv able to resist 
abrasion and be tough enough to stand up unfler severe 
usage. Idaho White Pine is a long-fibered wood, pos- 
sessing relatively high sheer values. 

If a pattern maker were to continue to tell why 
Idaho White Pine is a favorite wood, he would tell 
you about its gluing qualities, how it absorbs glue 
uniformly and permits building up of large and com- 
plicated shapes, which have adequate strength. He 
will tell you it is necessary at times to nail the wood 




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Idaho Wliite Pine pattornpof ili Peiton water wheel for Boulder Dam power plant. Paldwin Locomotive Works, Eddystone, l^a.; '2' and '3i working model Jiead 
(if 'v' niultijile ^pced horieontai boring, drilling and milling machine and saddle for revolving table of nan.e machine. N^m. Helleri- &, Co , Fhjladelphia, Pa. 



and the wood must be such that it will not split. 
Screws must be used, and the wood into which they 
are driven must be able to grip the screws tightly. A 
pattern maker will tell you that the wood he uses for 
patterns must take and hold paint and shellac so that 
they will protect the pattern against the action of 
moisture in the moulding sand. The surface must be 
smooth and free from any pore marks which might 
spoil this surface. He will tell you that in every way 
Idaho White Pine meets his most exacting needs and 
because this is the case, he continues to use this 
marvelous wood. 

Plentiful Supply 

Another important item a pattern maker might not 
mention, but an equally important matter in the selec- 
tion of a pattern wood, is the ready availability of the 
species in a good variety of grades, sizes and quantities. 
Since a pattern maker may not be familiar with this 
part of the subject at hand, it should be said that this 
is an outstanding feature of Idaho White Pine pattern 
lumber. Because of the abundant supply, the pattern 
maker is afforded a wide variety of stock from which 
he may select the most economical type and grade for 
his purpose. It is available in the Select and Factory 
grades up to 4 inches in thickness and is given special 
attention at drying time to make it uniformly dry 
before leaving the sawmill. The correct drying of thick 
pattern items is an art in itself, and one which has 
had the attention of the best minds in the lumber 
industry for many years. 

Pattern Makers Know Wood 

The fact that pattern makers insist on having Idaho 
White Pine for their exacting work is no faint praise 
for this species. A pattern maker must be proficient 
in three distinct trades. He must, primarily, be a 
foundryman, thoroughly familiar with the strength of 
various metals after being poured into the mould. He 
must know what gray iron will do under certain con- 
ditions. He must know how brass, aluminum or cast 
steel will react. He must know how cast, etc., will 



work under certain conditions. In other words, all the 
intricacies of foundry w^ork must be common knowl- 
edge to a good pattern maker. 

Next, he must know how to work with wood. He 
must know how to place the grain of wood so it will 
work with the other members of his pattern. He must 
know how the pattern is to be finished, whether paint, 
shellac or varnish should be used to give the smooth, 
even surface required in a pattern, and lastly, he must 
be an expert draftsman to be able to translate the 
drawings of a machine part into the design of his pat- 
tern. This means he must know the size of reinforcing 
members, the amount of metal required to be left when 
a hole is bored into the casting and, in general, how to 
lay out his work so that a satisfactory metal unit is 
produced. 

Naturally, the material used in the fabrication of a 
pattern is a small part of the expense involved, and 
that is why it pays to buy the best. Is it any wonder 
then that we say the selection of Idaho White Pine by 
skilled pattern makers over the length and breadth of 
the land is no faint praise of this species for their 
exacting use? 

Lumber Grade Requirements Vary 

Idaho White Pine is sold in a wide variety of grades, 
widths and thicknesses for use in the pattern shops of 
America. The grade of lumber for pattern purposes 
ranges from the highest grades (''Supreme" is the 
highest) to "Sterling" (a high-type, knotty board). 
Some of the larger foundries and industrial plants find 
that a number of grades are necessary to meet their 
requirements. For instance, a Common grade, such as 
"Sterling", may be used for a large machine base re- 
quiring thousands of feet of lumber, while some of the 
smaller parts of the machine may be cast from patterns 
made of the best grade of Select lumber, like "Su- 
preme". The individual requirements of an industry 
govern the type of stock selected for pattern makers' 
use. In the paragraphs that follow, further informa- 
tion is given about the grades of Idaho White Pine 
that are used by pattern makers. 



GRADE DESCRIPTIONS 



Idaho White Pine lumber for the foundry pattern 
trade is manufactured, graded and sold under the 
standard grading rules of the Western Pine Associa- 
tion. No special pattern grades are provided in these 
rules as eleven of the thirteen standard grades of Idaho 
White Pine for all commercial uses are suitable for the 
various types of patterns and flasks. These eleven 
grades may be classified into three general groups, 
namely — Selects, Factory and Boards. Each of these 
grades is described briefly on the following pages and 
includes pertinent information on the sizes available 
and their adaptability to the use. To assure uniformly 



graded stock at all Western Pine Association mills, 
experienced lumber inspectors employed by the Asso- 
ciation regularly check the work of the mill graders at 
every member plant. 

SELECT GRADES 

The Select grades include the highest quality of 
Idaho White Pine lumber. A greater number of the 
pattern shops find it economical to purchase these 
grades for all their pattern requirements because of 
the high percentage of the stock that can be utilized 
and their suitability for varied use with Uttle waste. 




Idaho Whu« Pine ha8 a uniform soft texture, workr* easily, glues well and f^^tays in place. thuK appuring a true casting where preeiKion rounti-. at- ctiown in thebe 
patti-rns: 1 . 2 "and (4) sink head patterns, Philadelphia. Pa.; (Sj dish gear and pinion; and (5) huge gear 'diameter tt' 113 2'-'. and pinion for coal hoiht.Kt I'aul. Mjnn 





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l't.<,u. ...K.. ,..,,.-,.,, .,. i.i.»...- .' ., 

andevfnf;<*llular.-it.ruf!tunr throinihout both the«pnn({wfKjdand?iLunmiT- 
WfKjd (or KfuiiU. Thir* rofidition affount-i fur th« earte with vvhioh Idaho 
Whito Pirn! in milled and harul-^hapt-d. 



An important related uso for Idaho White l^inc 
Selects is for templates or templets. This calls for a 
Htraij^ht-Krained, sol't-textiired wood. For this purpose, 
the standard grades (»f "(lioice" ((' Select] and "(Qual- 
ity" (I) Select I are j^enerally used, 

The three j^rades of Select in Idaho White Pine are 
<letermined from the l>est face on the basis of appear- 
ance and suitability for use. Wherever possible the 
Kra(lin>( rules specify the munber and size of defects 
which are admissible in pieces of specified surface areas. 

Supreme (B Select & Better)— Idaho White Pine 

"Supreme" is, as its name im[>lies. th<' finest ^ra<le 
produced m Idaho White Pine. Mueh of the stock is 
practically pertect and the blemishes or im[)erfections 
that occur in the low-line of the Kt'Jtde are always of a 
minor nature, which do not detract from the hij^h ap- 
pearance and ((uality of the ^I'lde. Thesr low-linr 
pierces may contain, depending on the si/e of tlie [yiecr, 
two or tliree small pin knots, or a small amount of 
li^ht stain, a small dry pitch pocket or several tiriv 
season checks that are hardly visible. 

Choice (C Select)— Idaho White Pine 

'llie ^riulv of "( hoice" ((' Select) Maho White Pine 
is also a very lii^h class material, and only by a careful 
examination of each piece is it possible to discern any 
marked ditYert^nc*^ between it and the nt^xt hi^hrT j?ra<le. 
The cliaracteristics usually found in the "( 'hoice" t^ra<le 
are tiru^ st^ison chiH'ks. a small tlry pitch i>ocket, small 
amounts of li^ht [)itch. or lijjiit to mtMlium stain. None 
of these may bt* in serious cond)inati(>n and in their 
absence, dep<*nihng on the size of the piece, the piece 
may ci>ntain from one to four small tijijht knots, or a 
larger number of (juarter inch pin knots. While this 
jjrade admits slightly more and largtT defects than are 
permissible in 'Supreme", it is well suited to the very 
highest pattern uses unless practically clear material is 
rtMiuired of tn-ery piece. 



Quality (D Select)— Idaho White Pine 

"Quality" is the lowest standard grade of Select 
lumber and, while it admits defects and blemishes too 
serious for the previous grades, it is, nevertheless, a 
smooth and valuable grade, usable for all foundry pat- 
tern purposes which call for a Select grade, yet the 
reciuirements are not as exacting as those uses to which 
the higher grades of Select (Choice and Supreme) are 
put. The chief characteristics of the grade are snuill 
-eason checks, small pitch pockets, medium stain in 
otherwise high-line pieces, and in the absence of these, 
the piece, depending on its size, may contain six or 
'ight small tight knots, or one or two not firmly set 
-mall knots, or a number of pin knots one-(iuarter inch 
or less in size. A type often placed in this graile is a 
high-line piece with one serious defect retjuiring a cut 
for finish work. 

FACTORY GRADES 

The Factory grades are the secornl group of Idaho 
White Pine grades, wfiich are especially suital>le for 
use in the f)att<Tn shop. These nre the same Factory 
grades of lumber regularly used in woodworking plants 
for the fabrication of sash, doors, frames and cabinet 
work. Tlie ((uality or grade of Factory hunbrr is de- 
terminetl on the cutting value from the stamlpoint of 
their iitili/atioii for sash and door cuttings, ur, in (tther 
words, tlie area or [jercentage of clear [>ieers tliat <*an 
l>e cut out of each boar<l. The Association standani 
grading rules, utidcr winch Idaho W hitr Pin*' l'':i(i<»ry 
lumber is graded, sju'cify that tliese clear cutlmgs must 
measiin' in >i/(' from .'>" or ti" wide by J'l" to I'n" in 
lengtfi; ')" or ♦>" wide by r>'S" to 7'ti" in length, to !>" 
or 10" wide by 2'1" to .{'(>" in length. 

Fvery [)ieer m the different l''aetory grades of Idaho 
\\ hite Pme lumber, as described below, must contain 
a certain specified minimum amount of clear cuttings 
withifi tlie range of sizes as noted. .Most pieces in 
each gra<le cimtain more than this minimum and many 
of the cuttings are both wider and larger than tfie sizes 
<lescribed. 

\n entirely ditYerent metliod is u.scil f«»r cutting iif) 
a Factory grade of lumlxr in a pattern shof> than that 
used for the same board for regular woodworking uses. 
For the latter purf)ose, the cuttings generally mint Ix* 
entirely clear an<i without impTfections while, in a 
patt«Tn, a few small ones such as a small .^oiind knot 
or blue stain are not objectionable. Hy careful utiliza- 
tion in the matter of cutting, as, for example, boxing a 
larger defect, the production of useful material from 
the Factory grades for foundry patterns may \)o con- 
siderably increase( 1. 

The fact that the Idaho White Pine Factory or Shop 
grades contain comparatively small knots and other 
tlefects tends to increase their value for pattern work, 
as in many instances these minor defects might be 
concealed in the pattern thus making the material yield 
almost KM) percent. 



5 




Idaho White Pine \^ UM'd for patterns of all sizes and shapes, as for: (1) housing for 100-ton hydraulic spring stripping press; ^2i gear box for 14-foot b >ring mill* 
i3> large propeller blade: 4 housing for blower end; (5) split offset nozzle; (6) and (7) core box for 63' octagonal ingot mould. 18 feet long. Pattern tS; uiade at 
Lancaster, Pa., all others at Philadelphia, Pa. 



Factory Select— Idaho White Pine (5/'4 and thicker) 

Because the grade of Factory Select is obtainable in 
such small quantities, it is usually placed in with the 
grade of No. 1 Shop. 

No. 1 Shop— Idaho White Pine (5/4 and thicker) 

No. 1 Shop in Idaho White Pine is an exceptionally 
well suited grade for pattern shops desiring a high class 
grade for cuttings and one where economy is an essen- 
tial factor. Its value is based on the percentage of 
cuttings produced. Then No. 1 Shop must contain 50 
percent or more of clear cuttings in each piece. 

No. 2 Shop-Idaho White Pine (5/'4 and thicker) 

The grade requirements of No. 2 Shop Idaho White 
Pine are much the same as in No. 1 Shop except that 
a smaller percentage of cuttings is necessary. Each 
piece of No. 2 Shop must contain 25 percent of No. 1 
cuttings or 33^3 percent of mixed No. 1 and No. 2 
cuttings, or 40 percent No. 2 cuttings (No. 2 cuttings 
contain one or two small blemishes), in the same sizes 
as specified for No. I Shop. In man}^ instances the 
pieces placed in this grade are just under the minimum 
requirements for No. 1 Shop. Furthermore, the knots 
and other defects found between these clear cuttings 
are usually smaller in Idaho White Pine than in any 
other species, which tends to make No. 2 Shop a high 
quality grade of lumber for pattern use. 

No. 3 Shop— Idaho White Pine (5 4 and thicker) 

No. 3 Shop is the low^est of the Factory grades and 
contains a considerable amount of cuttings of com- 
paratively small size, although many pieces will be 
found in this grade that contain rather large cuttings, 
which are clear (or nearly so) on one side of the piece, 
while the reverse side will contain several minor 
blemishes. No. 3 Shop admits all pieces (5 4 and 
thicker) below^ the grade of No. 2 Shop, providing the 
stock is of a cutting type. Generally speaking, No. 3 
Shop Idaho White Pine is a smooth appearing grade 
and is usable with little waste for patterns where the 
requirements are not too exacting. It is also used for 
foundry flasks and core boxes, and for building up 
patterns. 

Inch Factory Select and Inch Shop— Idaho White Pine 

Idaho White Pine Inch Factory lumber is graded 
under slightly different rules from thicker material due 
to differences in its general use. It is sorted into two 
grades — Inch Factory Select and Inch Shop. The grade 
of Inch Factory Select is slightly below the (5 4 and 
thicker) Factory Select grade. Each piece must pro- 
duce 70% or more of cuttings. The Inch Shop is 
slightly higher in grade than (5 4 and thicker) No. 2 
Shop, and each piece contains from 50% to 70% of 
cuttings. 



BOARD GRADES 

Pattern shops use the Common or Board grades of 
Idaho White Pine extensively for foundry flasks, facing 
boards, and for building up heavy patterns and core 
boxes. '^Sterling" (No. 2 Boards) and ''Standard" (No. 3 
Boards) are the grades generally recommended. 

SterHng (No. 2 Boards)— Idaho White Pine 

"Sterling" is the second highest of the five Idaho White 
Pine Board grades and it is a very popular grade 
because of its suitability for a wide variety of uses and 
it is a large volume grade. Its general appearance is 
uniformly higher than a description of its imperfec- 
tions would indicate. The round red knots are mostly 
less than 2}^'' in diameter and occasionally a piece 
may contain a spike or branch knot. The grade admits 
a few small pitch pockets, some seasoning checks, small 
tight black knots, medium stain, or even a limited 
amount of heart shake, but not in serious combination. 

Standard (No. 3 Boards)— Idaho White Pine 

"Standard" Idaho White Pine makes up a sizeable 
proportion of the total lumber shipped from most of 
the mills. It is graded much the same as the higher 
grade of "Sterling" except that the admissible character- 
istics may be somewhat larger and more numerous. 
This grade is fairly smooth in appearance and includes 
many pieces of an otherwise higher Board grade with 
a slight imperfection that places it in "Standard". 
Some pieces in this grade show season checks, stain or 
some heavy pitch or heart shake. In the absence of 
these the piece may contain some rather coarse knots, 
or an occasional piece may have a medium size loose 
knot or knot hole in an otherwise high quality board. 



Rough and Dressed Sizes of Idaho White Pine Select, 


Factory and Board Grades 




Th ick n esses Ro ugh 


Surfaced Two Sides 


V All Grades 


'>5 " 
32 


iM" 


P 32" 


134" 


l" 32" 


2" 


1" h" 


2^2" 


2%" 


3" 


2%" 


4" 


ZH" 


5" 


4H" 


6" 


5^" 



These sizes are furnished regularly, either rough or 
surfaced, except 5" and 6", which are only occasion- 
ally available. Thinner than one inch lumber for 
templets or other purposes may be secured if required. 

Widths and Lengths 

Select grades are furnished in random widths of 6" 
and wider with sl fair percentage of 12" and wider. 
Factory grades run 5" and wider with only a small 
percentage of pieces measuring less than 10". In both 
Select and Factory grades the lengths are random, 
largely 10 to 16 ft. Boards may be ordered in specified 
widths and lengths, and run strongly to 12" widths. 




Idaho White Pine ei\e> cood >ervico no niatler whether for fla^kj* or intricate pattern!-, a^ i heM- cxanjph'^ chow : 1 i wo and i hre<*-(*i(-<<- fiackc m loiihtani u^f m 
a .Htove w-^rkt*; tli moulder preparing fla*«k for casting fire pot for stationary stove; and ' Jj furnace ijatternc made by H C. J iejHchniaiin, I'hiladt'lphia. J'a 



8 




Idaho White Pine used for: d) two-part Hask for ca.>«ting box cap: (2) flasks for moulds of fire pot castings; (3) master patterns for iH'to ti'cast iron soil pipes, 
Harry Brown, Patti-rn Maker, Philadelphia. Pa.: i4> pattern for steam pipe section: (5) pattern of pipe line part for which both Common and Factory grades were 
used, and i6) duniniy auto body. Ford Motor Co.. Detroit. Mich, 




Idaho White Pine pattern?.— It oil rv^ 
Pattern Works. Philadcljvtiia; J> two . 
Philadelphia; S' dnvinc pear «:tand. \\ 
7> framework of cylinder barrel pattern 



■or U>wiK. Philadelj»iiia i'attern d: Mod<l ( o . 2 part^ for Ujat rran*- for l S S l,i»j|jt Ouimt ItojM-. Modern 
•er^ of Djesel engine. Rockford Standard I^attern Shop; 4* Mde frame for rue lofiin. V\ L Smith Mfg Co , 
('<) . Philadelphia: ifii support bracket and nutthmery fixture baM-. Taylor Pattern Shop. Koekford. Ill ; and 



10 



THE SEASONING OF IDAHO WHITE PINE LUMBER AT THE MILL 



Correct Seasoning Important 

Correct seasoning is most important for stock to be 
used in patterns. Any change in moisture content of 
patterns will cause swelling or shrinking, depending 
upon whether the wood is absorbing or losing moisture. 
The responsibility for correct seasoning is divided 
between the lumber manufacturer and the pattern 
maker. Any trouble with patterns is usually traceable 
to incorrect or incomplete seasoning of the stock before 
being used, or incorrect storage conditions of the fin- 
ished patterns between periods of use. Of necessity, 
the lumber manufacturer can season the stock only to 
fit general average conditions. Upon the pattern 
maker depends the final stage of seasoning which con- 
sists of holding stock for a reasonable period under 
storage conditions comparable to use conditions in the 
particular territory where he is working. The charac- 
teristics of wood must, without exception, be taken 
into consideration. Wood is the pattern material par 
excellence, but its properties must be understood and 
taken into consideration for the best results. The prin- 
cipal requirement is proper storage conditions. Before 
examining these in detail, some of the characteristics of 
all wood generally and of Idaho White Pine in par- 
ticular need to be considered. 

Structure of Wood 

Like all other tissues of plants and animals, wood is 
composed of cells, the single unit of life. In longitudinal 
section most cells appear as greatly elongated, hollow, 
cigar-shaped units. They are all tightly grown to- 
gether and have the appearance in magnified cross- 
section approximating that of a honeycomb. As may 
be seen from illustration (p. 5)— a cross-section of 
Idaho White Fine magnified about 20 diameters— most 
of the cells are arranged vertically in the tree. Mixed 
with them, and running at right angles from the pith- 
center toward the bark, are other cells known as medul- 
lary rays. These cells have important functions in 
the growth of the tree, one of which is to carry food 
supplies back and forth across the layers of cells. 

The walls of wood cells are, of course, in turn com- 
posed of smaller units, spirally disposed in the cell 
walls, the individual members of which are known as 
fibrils. The fibrils in turn have been broken down into 
still smaller units known as "eye cells". Beyond a 
breakdown into eye cells, which is accomplished only 
by a complicated technic, wood has not been success- 
fully broken down, except with a loss of structure. 

Because of its structural characteristics, the shrink- 
age or swelling of wood with loss or absorption of 
moisture is not uniform in all directions. Three sepa- 
rate dimension changes take place with a change in 
moisture content. Across the width of a slash-grained 



piece, the percentage change in dimension is greatest, 
while shrinkage in vertical-grained material in width is 
smaller. By the same token, the thickness of a slash- 
grained piece changes less than that of vertical-grained 
stock. Lengthwise there is so little change that it takes 
a special technic and precision measurements to deter- 
mine the amount. For all practical purposes it may be 
completely ignored. These variations in shrinkage or 
swelling make it necessary to bring wood, for an exact- 
ing purpose like foundry patterns, very close to the 
moisture content it will reach under use conditions, 
and therefore the need for the pattern maker himself 
to complete the seasoning process. Anyone interested 
in detailed information on the shrinkage of Idaho White 
Fine under any set of conditions may secure it by 
addressing the Western Pine Association headquarters 
in Portland, Oregon. The widespread use and satis- 
factory performance of Idaho White Pine speaks for 
its suitability for patterns without any particular tech- 
nical study of its characteristics. 

Most of the ordinary problems in the use of wood, 
such as checking, splitting, warping, cupping, etc., are 
due to difference in shrinkage in different directions 
plus a tendency for this shrinkage to occur at different 
times and in different portions of the piece. All of these 
troubles are eliminated by carefully conditioning the 
stock to the moisture content it will reach in use. 

One seasoning problem not related to shrinkage is 
stain or discoloration resulting from fungous growth 
or chemical reactions. This condition ordinarily occurs 
only in the early stages of seasoning green lumber. 
The stains do not interfere in any way with the us(^ of 
such lumber for patterns or similar work. 

Seasoning at the Mill and in the Pattern Shop 

As was brought out earlier, the Idaho White Pine 
manufacturer can dry his product only to general aver- 
age conditions. Such seasoning may be on crossers in 
yard piles protected from rain and sunshine or in 
modern automatically controlled, highly efficient dry 
kilns. Former prejudice against kiln dried pattern lum- 
ber has largely disappeared as the good qualities of 
stock dried in the modern kiln has become known to 
the pattern maker. However, to bring the wood into 
final shape for use, whether kiln or air dried, the pat- 
tern maker should maintain a stock of material suffi- 
cient for several months use so that it may come to 
what is known technically as an ^'equilibrium moisture 
content". The storage conditions should be as much 
like those of the shop or foundry as possible. Storage 
under heated conditions, as in a glue room, too near 
the boiler-room or under a sheet iron roof in the summer 
time, should be avoided. Likewise, exposure to weather 
or storage near standing water or other source of 
moisture is equally bad. 

11 



issm 




Idaho Wllit« Pin© lm» the necessary phy!«ical and njectiarncal pror>ertieti for all kind^ of patterns and fla^k^ ai* hhown here: vl' a deiail^'d pattern: i2i a frame 
pattern: (S) foundry flasks: (4i gear patterns: <5i manifold pattern; and 'Si a pattern franie for a rug n.akinK mac^-hine. 



12 



Finished patterns should have as much considera- 
tion as lumber. The pattern loft should not depart far 
from shop conditions or shrinkage and swelling may 
occur. The usual shellacking, or for that matter any 
other practical surface coating, will not prevent mois- 
ture changes if storage conditions are wrong. At best, 
any surface coating only slows down absorption or loss 



of w^ater due to surrounding air conditions. Briefly, 
extremes of temperature or moisture should be avoided 
for maximum performance of wood patterns. 

If the foregoing suggestions have been complied with, 
and specific problems are encountered, they should be 
submitted to the Research Laboratory of the Western 
Pine Association at Portland, Oregon. 



WHAT PATTERN MAKERS THINK OF IDAHO WHITE PINE 



1 . From G. Klein, Foreman, Pattern Shop at 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

"The intricate designs of our machinery requires com- 
plicated patterns, w^hich in turn demand a w^ood w^hich 
does not warp or twist. For our purpose, Idaho AVhite 
Pine has proven entirely satisfactory." 

2. From C. P. Taylor, Owner of Pattern Shop at 
Rockford, 111. 

"I have used Idaho White Pine lumber for the last 
7 years for small and large patterns and find it very 
fine lumber." 

3. From Walter P. Haun, Superintendent, Pattern Shop 
at Lancaster, Pa. 

'Tdaho White Pine is straight-grained and clean, has 
a tendency to stay straight, and works good on end 
grain. For these reasons we prefer Idaho White Pine." 

4. From Lawrence A. Svenson, Partner in Pattern Shop 
at Philadelphia, Pa. 

'*A custom pattern shop such as ours must be pre- 
pared to make patterns for a wdde variety of work. We 
have found that Idaho White Pine meets all require- 
ments for fine detailed pattern work, and has given us 
excellent results over a period of years." 



5. From M. R. Rawson, President, Washington 
Machinery &. Supply Co., Spokane, Wash. 

"We use Idaho White Pine exclusively for our pattern 
work for various reasons. In the first place, it is a 
hght -weight wood and is easy to work while making 
the patterns. This is a decided advantage, especially 
on rush jobs. Then, too, it is a good wood to glue and 
nails easily, showing no tendency to split during the 
making of a pattern or when it is in use. Furthermore, 
dry Idaho White Pine holds its shape without distor- 
tion and has a uniformly soft texture. So, all in all, 
we have found from experience that Idaho White Pine 
is an ideal wood for foundry patterns. As a matter of 
fact, the writer believes that all foundries in this dis- 
trict use this genuine White Pine for patterns." 

6. From Frank Z. Gessert, Foreman, Pattern Shop, 
American Shipbuilding Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

"In 28 years as foreman of the American Shipbuilding 
Company's pattern shop, I have used several kinds of 
woods but I have found that Idaho White Pine is the 
best for all around pattern purposes. We have many 
patterns made of Idaho White Pine that have seen 
service over and over again but still retain their 
original shape." 






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Idaho White Pine is used in making such marine patterns as these of: (1) intermediate cylinder for S.S. Elton Hoyt II and (2) other items at American 
Shipbuilding Co., Cleveland, Ohio; and (3) is well liked by all workmen in pattern shops. 



13 



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Idaho White Pine i> favori'd by pattern Iuaker^ because of it8 excellent properties for shop Uf»e8: (1) ehellafking a W Jjile Pine paliern. Hi. Paul. Minn ; '2* pat' 
for l .;m1 1 fin-ind and >plii blank gear for roapter . Lanc&ster Iron Workfl. Lancaster, Pa. ; and (I) Bix-fcx>t fla^k (completed one at left) for caetinx metal tla^esliold. Ijot 



Ix.ard and drag in center, and cope at right. 



14 



TIMBER SUPPLY OF IDAHO WHITE PINE 



The commercial range of Idaho White Pine timber 
is comparatively restricted. The territory which con- 
tains the largest continuous forests of this wood is to 
be found in the Inland Empire of the Pacific North- 
west, north of the Salmon River in Idaho and in the 
tributary areas in eastern Washington and western 
Montana. Here, the Idaho W' hite Pine makes up ap- 
proximately 80 percent of the commercial stand. Ac- 
cording to the latest available estimates, the present 
merchantable stand of Idaho White Pine is approxi- 
mately sixteen billion feet. About five hundred million 
feet (board measure) is manufactured annually into 
lumber under normal business conditions. Not all of 
this large volume of Idaho White Pine is suitable, of 
course, for pattern lumber but the figures quoted here 
should refute the occasionally expressed fallacy that 
present supply of genuine W^hite Pine is nearly ex- 
hausted and soon will be hard to secure. Besides, forest 
conservation measures are being practiced in the Idaho 



White Pine woods which will assure an ample future 
supply of this excellent pattern material. 

Idaho White Pine is found in practically pure stands 
in northern Idaho where it grows most abundantly but 
is mixed with other species over large areas. It is a 
tree of the middle and upper slopes of the mountainous 
country and generally occurs at elevations of 2,000 
feet to 7,000 feet. It is a straight tree with a long clear 
bole and a short, rather open crown. The limbs are 
short and of small diameter. The typical tree closely 
resembles Northern White Pine except that it has much 
larger cones. Where it attains optimum growth it 
reaches a diameter of from four to five feet and is from 
180 to 200 feet tall. Due to its thin bark and long 
cylindrical trunk, Idaho White Pine yields a large 
volume of lumber for its diameter and height com- 
pared to other species. It belongs to the * 'five-needle" 
pines or, to put it another way, the genuine white 
pine group. 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF IDAHO WHITE PINE 



Like Northern White Pine 

The general appearance of the wood of Idaho White 
Pine is much the same as Northern White Pine, in 
fact even under the microscope, it fails to disclose any 
marked differences. It is light in color, a creamy white, 
and it has a subdued, inconspicuous grain, due to its 
uniform cellular structure. The growth ring shows only 
faintly. The wood weathers to a light brown with a 
moderate sheen. 



Straight-Grained — Soft-Textured 

Idaho White Pine is characteristically straight- 
grained and of soft and even texture. These properties 
in a large measure account for the wood's smoothness 
and fine appearance when surfaced as well as for the 
satisfactory way it works up, either along or across 
the grain, with both hand and machine tools. It is 
distinctly a small, sound-knotted species, and seldom 
shows heart shake, resin or pitch pockets. 



MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF IDAHO WHITE PINE 



Light Weight 

The wood is light in weight. Its specific gravity is 
.36 as compared to an average for the white pines of .35, 
indicating that the dry weight of this wood is for all 
practical purposes the same as the average of the white 
pine group. The mean weight of Idaho White Pine at 
a moisture content of 12 percent is 27 pounds per cubic 
foot, while the average of the white pines is 26 pounds. 
A comparison of weights of other commercial species 
shows 41 pounds for longleaf southern pine; 34 pounds 
for Douglas fir (Coast type), and 30 pounds for red- 
wood. To the pattern maker, hght weight in a wood 
is an important factor, not only while the patterns are 
made, but afterward as well. Light weight materially 
facihtates their handUng, especially when the pattern 
is large, and oftentimes such patterns can be moved 
about without the aid of machinery, obviating the 
danger of damage that might involve costly repairs. 

Strong for Its Weight 

Although Idaho White Pine does not have strength 
values that are equal to those of the harder and denser 



woods, it is unusually strong for its weight and has 
adequate strength for ordinary uses in a pattern and 
foundry shop. Moreover, the wood fibers cling tightly 
together and seldom shatter or sliver. It excels, too, 
in bending and compressive strength, stiffness and 
shock resistance. 

Nails Easily 

The extensive use of nails and screws in assembling 
patterns calls for a good non-splitting wood. It is hard 
to find a more perfect wood than Idaho White Pine 
in this respect. It nails easily and offers excellent re- 
sistance to splitting. When using screws in Idaho 
White Pine, the wood fibers are less distorted or broken 
than is the case with the harder textured woods. 
Shrinkage can be troublesome for the continued use of 
a pattern depends so much upon its abihty to stay in 
place and keep its shape. This factor is of great im- 
portance when choosing a pattern wood. Idaho White 
Pine meets the needs of low shrinkage values and its 
wide use for many years in pattern shops speaks more 
effectively than words as to its serviceability. 



15 



Glues WeU 

The wood ranks with the best for its good gluing 
properties. This property, too. is highly hiiportant in 
a pattern shop where there is so much need of ghiing 
wood in building up material for the patterns. 

Finishing Treatments Lasting 

Another need in pattern work is to get a wood that 
can be varnished and shellacked in a satisfactory 
manner to protect the pattern from moisture while in 
the moulding sand. Idaho White Pine is admirably 
suited for this purpose and it finishes up satisfactorily 
with all kinds of treatments. Furthermore, its texture 
is such that it provides a long wearing, smooth surface. 

A High Class, Well Manufactured Pattern Wood 

Idaho White Pine, possessing the many fine proper- 
ties of the genuine White Pines, is manufactured into 
pattern lumber and scores of other uses with extreme 
care and precision. The latest in modern machinery 
and equipment is found at the Idaho White Pine mills. 
The manufacturers take real pride in their product. 
For years, Idaho White Pine and the other Western 
Pines and associated species have enjoyed a high repu- 
tation in the softwood markets of the country because 
of the high standards maintained in the manufacture, 
seasoning and grading of these forest products. Every 



effort is made to place Idaho White Pine on the market 
in a form and condition which will preserve natural 
properties and at the same time meet the commercial 
requirements of industry in all its ramifications. 

CONCLUSION 

In conclusion, we hope that the preceding discussion 
has been not only interesting but enlightening to the 
pattern makers of America by pointing out that Idaho 
AVhite Pine is an ideal w^ood for foundry patterns, core 
boxes, flasks and other specialty uses, because: 



4. 



It is a genuine White Pine. 

It has proven highly satisfactory in pattern shops 
after years of practical experience. 
It has the necessary physical and mechanical char- 
acteristics required of a pattern wood. 
It is well manufactured, carefully seasoned and 
expertly graded at mills, w^hich are members of 
the Western Pine Association. 
It is available throughout the country at distri- 
bution centers in standard dimensions in a wide 
range of grades to meet different requirements. 
It is produced from mature timber by mills backed 
by an ample reserve supply. 




Idaho White Pine was used by Grundy <k Svenson, of Philadelphia. Pa., for thete patterns of rings, bearing, bracket, wheel, large and small elbow and core box. 



16 



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Dry IddhoWhite Pine Pattern Lumber 

In under-cover storage at reserve supply yards and at the mills ready for prompt ship- 
ment. The stock illustrated above is three-inch and four-inch material of varying widths. 




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♦ IDAHO (GENUINE) 



ST SCENES